Far Eastern College or university

Manila, Israel

Institute of Arts and Sciences

Regulatory Proteins: Hormones Reviewer

Group 1 – MT13215

Santos, Catheleyn (Angiotensin II Hormone)

Gutierrez, Junyl (Vasopressin)

Bartolome, Relyn Delight (Oxytocin)

A, Bea Steffi (Glucagon)

Montenegro, Charles Ruben (Insulin)

Santuyo, Lara Mae (Amylin)

Lamorena, Earl John (Gastrin and Cholesystokinin)

Mister. Rogelio Grafilo

January twenty one, 2015


Where did Angiotensin II Hormone originate from?

Angiotensinogen - a renin substrate; released by the lean meats (hepatocytes), the most crucial amino acids would be the first doze amino acids; other regions of the base has no further biological activity. (prohormone in Angiotensin 2 Hormone) Renin - (an enzyme-acting hormone) contains 340 amino acids from the kidneys. Once combined, the Renin catalyzes the Angiotensinogen into a 10-amino acid, Angiotensin I. Angiotensin I - has no natural activity, just a precursor to angiotensin II. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) – removes two amino acids in the C-terminal of the Angiotensin My spouse and i; found in the lungs and the vascular endothelium. When mixed, the EXPERT catalyzes the Angiotensin We to produce a great 8-amino acid, Angiotensin 2. In conclusion, is known as the Renin-Angiotensin Pathway:

Angiotensin II Body hormone - includes a molecular mixture of C50H71N13O12. It constricts them of arterioles closing down capillary bedrooms, stimulates the adrenal cortex to release aldosterone. Aldosterone (a steroid junk from adrenal glands) triggers the kidneys to reclaim more Em and drinking water ions, increases the strength with the heartbeat, encourages the pituitary to release the antidiuretic junk (ADH, also called vasopressin). These factors help the increase in stress.


Asparagine, a extremely positive string; exhibits ionic bond.

Arginine, a polar positive string; exhibits ionic bond.

Valine, a nonpolar alipathic sequence; exhibits hydrophobic interaction. Tyrosine, aromatic and heterocyclic string; exhibits putting interaction. Isoleucine, a nonpolar alipathic cycle; exhibits hydrophobic interaction. Histidine, a non-aromatic and a heterocyclic cycle; exhibits stacking interaction. Proline, a non-aromatic and a heterocyclic sequence; exhibits putting interaction. Phenylalanine, a nonpolar, aromatic and a heterocyclic chain; displays stacking connection.

The most important proteins present in Angiotensin II are: tyrosine and phenylalanine. Any alterations or perhaps deletion inside these two amino acids can cause the entire inactivation of the Angiotensin II Hormone.

Exactly where does it situation?

Angiotensin II is a potent vasoconstrictor that constricts equally arteries and veins to enhance blood pressure by simply binding on AT-1 receptor (prominent in adults) and AT-2 receptor (prominent in fetus) which usually also inactivates Nitric Oxide that causes the constriction of the arteries.

What are the other types of Angiotensin?

Angiotensin II is additional catalysed in to Angiotensin III by the Angiotensineases present in the capillaries which will acts as 40% pressor and 100% aldosterone stimulator. Angiotensin IV originate from Angiotensin III also catalysed by the action of Angiotensineases, is the newly discovered kind of angiotensin, their function happens to be on issue, but it is believed it enhances glucagon uptake. VASOPRESSIN HORMONE


Prohormone in neural cellular material of hypothalamus and grows as they pass down axons with jar proteins named neurophysins. Consists of 164 amino acids before it really is activated with a cleavage. Is known as a peptide junk composed of on the lookout for amino acids including arginine at its 8th placement. Arginine is very important in the binding affinity and when deleted, it may cause inability to focus urine. Urine is concentrated by simply increasing the kidney reabsorption rate of tubule cells. If the urine is not really concentrated, it will eventually lead to mutations such as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and hypernathemia....